School staff found human faeces daily near the athletics track and football field and monitored the area to identify the culprit.
Staff at Holmdel High School in New Jersey reported finding human faeces "on a daily basis" near its athletics track and football field, authorities said.
Thomas Tramaglini, 42, was detained following an early morning run at the school's athletic facilities on Monday.
Staff had been monitoring the area to identify the culprit, Holmdel Township Police Department said.
Tramaglini, who reportedly lives about three miles from the high school, has been charged with public defecation, lewdness and littering.
He is superintendent of schools in the nearby district of Kenilworth, reportedly earning nearly $150,000 (£110,000) per year as head of the local education authority.
In a statement, Kenilworth Public Schools said: "Given the nature of those charges, he asked for and was granted a paid leave of absence."