The outburst seems to have been triggered by Mika Brzezinski mocking the news Trump has a fake TIME magazine cover of himself.
It's the latest in a string of escalating insults heaped on the national news media.
"I heard poorly rated @MorningJoe speaks badly of me (don't watch anymore). Then how come low I.Q. Crazy Mika, along with Psycho Joe, came.
"...to Mar-a-Lago 3 nights in a row around New Year's Eve, and insisted on joining me. She was bleeding badly from a face-lift. I said no!
The Morning Joe hosts were seen at Trump's Palm Beach resort on New Year's Eve - but Scarborough has said they were not there to party.
They were on such good terms with the president when he was inaugurated that he reportedly offered to officiate their wedding.
The graphic nature of his suggestion that she had undergone plastic surgery drew swift condemnation on social media.
Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina wrote on Twitter: "Mr President, your tweet was beneath the office and represents what is wrong with American politics, not the greatness of America."
The Speaker of the House Paul Ryan told a press conference: "I don't see that as an appropriate comment."
A spokesman for NBC News, Mark Kornblau, wrote on Twitter: "Never imagined a day when I would think to myself, 'It is beneath my dignity to respond to the President of the United States.'"
In a statement on Thursday morning, MSNBC said: "It's a sad day for America when the president spends his time bullying, lying and spewing petty personal attacks instead of doing his job."
Ms Brzezinski shot back with a photograph showing text on the back of a Cheerio's cereal box: "Made for Little Hands," a reference to the claim Trump has unusually small ones.
The episode was a reminder of Trump's sexist criticism of then Fox News anchor Megyn Kelly during the 2016 campaign.
After tough questions from her, he later suggested she had "blood coming out of her".
The president's recent outburst appears to have been prompted by Ms Brzezinski mocking the news that Trump has a fake TIME magazine cover of himself displayed at several of his properties.
"Nothing makes a man feel better than making a fake cover of a magazine about himself, lying every day, and destroying the country," she said.
First Lady Melania Trump's office defended his tirade in a statement: "As First Lady has stated publicly…when her husband gets attacked, he will punch back 10 times harder."
White House Deputy Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders told Fox News: "This is a president who meets fire with fire."
The public spat appears to mark the end of what was once a friendship between the billionaire businessman and the TV hosts. During the 2016 primaries, the show was often accused of being "too cosy" with Trump as a candidate.
It has been a tense week for relations between the press and the Trump administration.
The president and his team seized on a major error at CNN, which retracted a report about one of his associates. Three journalists who worked on the story resigned.
Trump's on-again, off-again relationship with the Morning Joe's hosts has taken a very cold turn. The White House press corps has grown increasingly frustrated at the lack of access or on-camera briefings by the White House.